TopChiller can design and manufacture all types of ice rink chillers for you
- 20 Ton -200 Ton ice rink chiller cooling capacity
- Temperature control -5℃ to -35℃
- Air cooled&water cooled condenser
- High-efficiency heat exchangers
- Scroll and screw compressors available
- Easy installation, operation, and lower maintenance cost
- Multiple ice pad facilities&thermal storage ice rink
- 18 months warranty time
Your Ice Rink Chiller Manufacturer and Supplier Over 20 Years
Ice rink chillers are newly developed refrigeration machines by TopChiller for the ice skating rink and ice rink arena application.
TopChiller is specialized in designing and manufacturing various models of ice rink chillers and ice rink refrigeration systems.
Ice rink chillers manufactured from TopChiller equipped with hermetic scroll compressor or semi-hermetic screw compressor, the refrigeration capacity range is from 5 Ton-200Ton with the temperature controlling range from -10℃ to -30℃.
For an ice rink project, the refrigeration system or the ice rink chiller is the most important part. Because this refrigeration system is providing a constant cooling source to make sure the ice inside your ice rinks yard keeps at a proper temperature.
A refrigerated ice rink utilizes an ice rink chiller that draws the heat out of the ice, ensuring it stays frozen despite temperatures rising well above freezing, this is why we need the ice rink chiller for your ice rink project.
This ice rink chiller adopts stepless refrigeration energy regulation, which can perform the most reasonable work according to the actual load of the ice rink.
According to customer requirements, we can provide -5 ~ -15 degrees of process cold source/refrigerant as the coolant in the ice rink pipeline (glycol water or brine water solution)
Generally the main structure layers of the Ice Rink include:
1, 60mm foundation leveling layer
2, 1.5㎜ thick quick-seal K12 waterproof coatings: ensure the tightness of the ice rink
3, 40mm electric heating layer + mortar protective layer: The heating start temperature setting the value of the electric heating layer is 5 ～ 6 ℃, and heating starts below this temperature to prevent secondary layer condensation
4, liquid waterproof layer K12: ensure the tightness of the ice rink
5, 150㎜ thick polystyrenes extruded board thermal insulation layer: ensure thermal insulation effect and ground strength
6,40mm sliding layer + 1: 2 cement mortar protection layer: to ensure that the ice structure does not damage the structural layer due to freeze-thaw deformation
7,100㎜antifreeze concrete layers, with 12,200 single-layer steel bars inside, to ensure the ice compressive strength
8,40mm coil sand layer Built-in PE25 row pipe, the center distance is 65㎜, ensuring high precision of ice scene layer
9, 40-60mm true ice layer
TopChiller offers a complete range of high-quality, industrial-grade, low ambient ice rink chillers of various capacities for ice rinks of different sizes.
From 20 years of ice rink chiller-making experience combined with the latest in advanced refrigeration technologies, TopChiller has launched our new rice rink chiller and other refrigeration system built exclusively for the green world movement.
If you are looking for an ice rink chiller to cool down your ice skating rink?
If you want to purchase a good quality ice rink chiller to build your ice rink project？
Please contact the TopChiller refrigeration expert to consult and custom your ice rink chiller.
- Image Gallery
- Data Sheet
- Main Parts
Ice Rink Chiller Technical Specification
|Type||Shell and tube type/Plate type heat exchanger|
|Power Source||3PH～380V/415V/480V～50HZ/60HZ(3PH～200V/220V 50HZ/60HZ)|
|Compressor||Type||Hermetic scroll ( piston )|
|Condenser||Type||Efficient finned copper tube with aluminum + low noise external rotor fan|
|Safety protection||Compressor inner protection, over current protection, high / low pressure protection, over temperature protection, flow rate protection, phase sequence/phase missing protection, low level coolant protection, anti freezing protection|
The above specifications are according to the following design conditions:
1, Chilled water inlet/outlet temperature difference 3℃/8℃.
2, Cooling air inlet/outlet temperature 30℃/38℃
Why TopChiller is Your Reliable Ice Rink Chiller Manufacturer and Supplier In China?
Ice Rink Chiller-The Ultimate FAQ Guide by TopChiller.
- What is an Ice Rink Chiller?
- What are the Features of an Ice Rink Chiller?
- What is the Working Principle of an Ice Rink Chiller?
- How many Constructive Layers are found in an Ice Rink Chiller?
- How does an Ice Rink Chiller Operate?
- What are the Types of an Ice Rink Chiller?
- What is used in an Ice Rink Chiller?
- Which Anti-Freezing Agent is used in an Ice Rink Chiller?
- How does an Ice Rink Chiller Stay Frozen?
- What is the Capacity of an Ice Rink Chiller?
- How much a Temperature is Controlled in an Ice Rink Chiller?
- What is the Refrigeration Cycle of an Ice Rink Chiller?
- How does a Direct Ice Rink Chiller Works?
- How does an Indirect Ice Rink Chiller Operate?
- What is the Differentiate between a Portable and a Permanent Ice Rink Chiller?
- What are the Benefits of an Ice Rink Chiller for your Applications?
- What is the Price Range of an Ice Rink Chiller?
- What is the Sizing Estimation for an Ice Rink Chiller?
- How Much Energy is Consumed by an Ice Rink Chiller?
- What are the Ways to Increase your Ice Rink Chiller Efficiency?
- How can you do Air Temperature Adjustments for an Ice Rink Chiller?
- Does Water Quality Affect your Ice Rink Chiller Capacity?
- What are the Customized Options for an Ice Rink Chiller?
- What are the Tips for Users of an Ice Rink Chiller?
- How Often an Ice Rink Chiller should be Serviced?
- How you can Avoid Corrosion in an Ice Rink Chiller?
- What are the Best Maintenance Practices for your Ice Rink Chiller?
- Which Environment is Best for your Ice Rink Chiller?
- What are the Benefits of Using CO2 in Ice Rink Chiller?
- Why Ice Rink Chiller Use Carbon Dioxide for Climate Control?
- What is the Noise Level of an Ice Rink Chiller?
- What is the Life Expectancy of an Ice Rink Chiller?
What is an Ice Rink Chiller?
An Ice Rink Chiller is a cooling system that is used to prevent the melting of ice by using a network of pipes that effectively cool the water to form an ice slab suitable for recreational activities.
The cooling system is used with an ice rink that serves the purpose of sporting, sating, and recreational activities such as figure skating, curling, ice hockey, and speed skating.
To maintain the level and quality of ice an Ice Rink Chiller is specifically designed that operates to maintain the low freezing temperature and avoid any slightest variation in regulating the ice rink.
Prime quality ice rink chiller manufactured by TopChiller
What are the Features of an Ice Rink Chiller?
There are many features and attributes of Ice Rink Chiller that make it an extraordinary product.
It comprises the following features that help in proving this remarkable chilling equipment:
- Screw compressor
- High-efficiency motor
- Built-in system redundancy
- Centrifugal motor pump
- Shell and tube cooler
- Automatic oil recovery system
- Glycol or brine
- Heat recovery system
- Digital control panels
Ice rink chiller screw compressor
What is the Working Principle of an Ice Rink Chiller?
An Ice Rink Chiller works on the principle of heat transfer. In this process, heat is transferred from a lower temperature region to a higher temperature region in the adjacent surrounding.
The basic principle of Ice Rink Chiller is the same as other chilling systems. Refrigerant is used to absorb the heat of the process and phase transitions occur that re-circulates the fluid and cool down the temperature.
Brine, which is a mixture of water and salt, is returned from the ice rink after absorbing heat. The heat is transferred to another secondary refrigerant such as ethylene glycol or carbon dioxide.
The refrigerant absorbs heat from the brine and changes its transition state from liquid to low-pressure gas.
The high-pressure gas then again reverts its transition state to liquid and re-circulates the pipeline of the Ice Rink Chiller.
There are two types of chilling systems on which an Ice Rink Chiller operates such as direct and indirect chilling systems. Both the systems operate on the same basic principle.
An indirect system operates on the same principle but uses two refrigerants for heat transfer that making the process efficient, reliable, and exclusive by cutting down the expenses.
Ice rink chiller working cycle
How many Constructive Layers are found in an Ice Rink Chiller?
The Ice Rink Chiller has ice slabs that comprise several constructive layers to avoid the loss of cooling because of any unusual reason.
The most common layers include:
- Foundation leveling layer of 1.60mm
- Quick-seal waterproof coating with 2.15mm thickness
- Liquid waterproof layer
- An electric heating layer of thickness 3.40mm
- Mortar protective layer
- Polystyrene extruded board insulation layer of 5.150mm thickness
- Cement mortar layer
- Sliding layer of thickness 6.40mm
- Anti-freeze concrete layer
- Coil sand layer of thickness 8.40mm
How does an Ice Rink Chiller Operate?
An Ice Rink Chiller operates on the principle of cooling the brine water that in return freezes the rink surface.
It uses the same technique that is used in refrigerators and air conditioners.
The pipes pump the brine water embedded in the concentrate slab.
In the Ice Rink Chiller, much colder refrigerants absorb heat from the ice rink such as ethylene glycol or carbon dioxide.
The refrigerant boils and vaporizes as soon as it absorbs the heat from the brine.
Brine again takes time to cool down and re-circulates to the rink for another cycle.
By this principle, an Ice Rink Chiller operates and helps in regulating the rink icing surface.
What are the Types of an Ice Rink Chiller?
Two basic types of Ice Rink Chiller operate in a dissimilar manner.
These two types are commonly used in cooling the ice rinks and other chilling systems.
- Direct System Ice Rink Chiller
In this type of chilling system, the heat is removed from the floor by pumping the primary refrigerant directly to the pipes and distributional channels.
- Indirect System Ice Rink Chiller
In an indirect system, a liquid refrigerant first absorbs heat from secondary liquid such as brine and pumps out the heat from the floor as the brine is pumped in the pipes embedded under the floor.
Both systems operate well, but nowadays indirect systems are the preferred choice of operators because of safety control of potentially harmful refrigerants.
Indirect system ice rink chiller
What is used in an Ice Rink Chiller?
An Ice Rink Chiller is used for ice rink projects to maintain the ice slabs during recreational activities.
It prevents the unbalance and melting of ice in ice rinks by regulating the temperature.
The direct or indirect refrigeration system provides a continuous cooling source to keep the ice inside the ice rink at a proper low temperature.
Primary and secondary refrigerants maintain the temperature efficiently.
Water or brine water that is a mixture of salt and water is used as a primary refrigerant and ethylene glycol, and carbon dioxide is used as secondary refrigerants in an Ice Rink Chiller.
A very common refrigerant CO2 is used to transfer heat.
CO2 is also used as a refrigerant in the latest Ice Rink Chiller units. It is non-corrosive and non-explosive that makes it a remarkable choice.
Which Anti-Freezing Agent is used in an Ice Rink Chiller?
A variety of anti-freezing agents can be used in an Ice Rink Chiller such as glycol, carbon dioxide, and brine water.
These anti-freezing agents are used as primary and secondary heat absorbents.
The primary function of an anti-freezing agent is to remove heat and cool down the process and working components.
The fluid circulates in a closed loop and is thus reused again and again.
Brine water is an anti-freezing agent that contains the calcium-chloride solution.
It has a lower freezing temperature as compared to the water so it flows the pipes and stays cold enough to freeze water at the surface.
Ethylene glycol is another anti-freezing agent that is used in mostly chilling systems.
It is used with a 69% aqueous solution to prevent ice formation at low temperatures and prevent damage.
Anti-freezing agent used in an ice rink chiller
How does an Ice Rink Chiller Stay Frozen?
An indirect refrigeration system plays a vital role in keeping the Ice Rink Chiller frozen.
A liquid refrigerant such as CO2 absorbs heat from secondary liquid such as brine water which has directly absorbed heat from the floor.
Indirectly, the heat is transferred from brine to secondary refrigerant that boils and vaporizes. Brine water is re-circulated in the pipes and temperature is controlled, keeping the ice rink frozen.
What is the Capacity of an Ice Rink Chiller?
The capacity of a chilling system is defined as the amount of heat the system can remove from a certain place or a process over time.
It is mentioned in terms of tons for a cooling system.
The capacity of an Ice Rink Chiller depends upon the compressor type. It is calculated in tons. Hermetic scroll compressors are used in chilling systems that have a range of 1.5 tons to 300 tons.
The capacity of an Ice Rink Chiller can be increased by increasing the compressor capacity.
Screw compressors are additional compressors that can be added to increase efficiency up to 40 tons.
3 tons ice rink chiller
How much a Temperature is Controlled in an Ice Rink Chiller?
The temperature of an Ice Rink Chiller is maintained to regulate the level and quality of ice slabs.
Various parameters control it such as the refrigerant quality, level, and flow rates.
Normally, the temperature of an Ice Rink Chiller is controlled from a range of -5℃ to -35℃. Indoor ice rinks are maintained at a temperature of 24 to 26 degrees Fahrenheit or about -4 degrees Celsius.
Several protective and insulation layers are installed in an Ice Rink Chiller that functions for temperature control.
Electric heating layers set the value and heating below the set value prevents the secondary condensation.
What is the Refrigeration Cycle of an Ice Rink Chiller?
In the refrigeration cycle of an Ice Rink Chiller, brine circulates at a low temperature underneath the ice rink and absorbs all the heat of the process.
It returns from the surface and to be absorbed by secondary much colder refrigerants such as CO2.
Condenser converts the refrigerant the gaseous state of the refrigerant into a liquid that is circulated back into the system to absorb heat from heated brine.
Cold brine re- circles the ice rink and the refrigeration cycle again starts.
How does a Direct Ice Rink Chiller Works?
A direct Ice Rink Chiller operates on a direct refrigeration setup. In this type of chilling system, the refrigerant is itself pumped out underneath the skating surface in a network of tubes.
It makes the surface cold and freezes the water layers into ice. It is considered a difficult method to chill an ice rink.
It is commonly installed in small setups.
There are some drawbacks of this method as the refrigerant has to cover miles in the circulating tubes, so the chances of leakage are high.
These are not considered pocket-friendly Ice Rink Chiller for large setups.
How does an Indirect Ice Rink Chiller Operate?
An indirect refrigeration system operates indirectly and the refrigerant never leaves the Ice Rink Chiller machines.
A mixture of salt and water called brine is used to freeze the water underneath the rink floor.
Indirect Ice Rink Chiller is not much efficient because here heat is transferred between brine and secondary refrigerant to keep the brine at low temperature.
More energy is consumed to run an indirect system so it is not energy efficient. But, refrigerant leaks are not a huge issue that makes it a good choice for operators.
What is the Differentiate between a Portable and a Permanent Ice Rink Chiller?
With advanced technologies, the Ice Rink Chiller is also revolutionized into two forms.
One is the portable form and the other form is a permanent Ice Rink Chiller.
A portable chilling system is considered a temporary source of cooling for ice rinks.
It can be used when required and then rolled up and stored away until the next use.
A permanent Ice Rink Chiller uses the refrigeration chilling system and piping material embedded in the concrete pad that becomes a multi-purpose sport and skating pad.
Portable ice rink chiller
What are the Benefits of an Ice Rink Chiller for your Applications?
An Ice Rink Chiller is used for cooling and maintaining the ice rinks at low temperatures to give the following benefits for recreational and other applications:
- It functions in tropical locations to efficiently increase the cooling in ice rinks.
- It has eco-green technology that makes it reliable.
- The instruments are installed to regulate and maximize the power efficiency of the system.
- It avoids outrages and provides system redundancy very efficiently.
What is the Price Range of an Ice Rink Chiller?
Ice Rink Chiller is the equipment that can be customized according to the requirements and needs of the operators.
You can get this product for your backyard lawn ice rink and a large ice rink used for recreational activities.
On average, this device comes in a cost range from $12,000 to $30,000. Based on the customized options it can be made budget-friendly and expensive as well.
What is the Sizing Estimation for an Ice Rink Chiller?
The sizing estimation for an Ice Rink Chiller depends upon several factors but the load calculation can give an estimate of the size of the Ice Rink Chiller according to the requirements.
Typically, 100kW of cooling capacity is required to freeze 1 dm3/s of water from 25°C to 0°C. The energy required can be calculated which is equal to the water volume time the thermal efficiency of the medium to delta T of water to be cooled.
Each plant has a different compressor and condenser efficiency, so each installation may vary.
The size of the Ice Rink Chiller can be customized based on the above calculations and requirements of the system.
Ice rink chiller sizing formula
How Much Energy is Consumed by an Ice Rink Chiller?
It takes a lot of electrical energy to run an Ice Rink Chiller.
The input power to it is estimated as 1700kW for a capacity of 2000 tons. It varies depending upon the compressors.
Most electricity consumption in Ice Rink Chiller goes to refrigeration systems, pumps, fans, and compressors.
Typically, the annual energy consumption of an Ice Rink Chiller is 0.7 to 0.9 kW per ton.
What are the Ways to Increase your Ice Rink Chiller Efficiency?
Ice Rink Chiller can easily increase its cooling capacity and efficiency by a few changes in the equipment.
Various modifications followed by advanced technologies can cause increased efficiency of the Ice Rink Chiller.
Using refrigerant at the correct level and with a good flow rate can increase the efficiency of the chilling system.
The quality of refrigerants also matters a lot. Change the filter on monthly basis to increase the efficiency of the system.
Regular maintenance tasks help in lowering operational costs. It also detects the leaks at early stages that prevent the heavy replacement charges.
This is an effective way to make the chilling system efficient.
Perform energy audit on the chilling system. The audit suggests new techniques for reducing the energy power usage and gives an estimate of alternatives to change the frequency and phase.
How can you do Air Temperature Adjustments for an Ice Rink Chiller?
Change of air temperature is a great way to reduce electricity usage and makes the system energy efficient.
The air temperature of an Ice Rink Chiller should be adjusted weekly because disturbed air temperature can melt the ice faster.
Ice melts easily at higher ambient temperatures, so it is necessary to keep an eye on the control panel and maintain the air temperature as soon as it fluctuates.
Normally, the air temperature is set between 55° to 60° Fahrenheit (F).
It affects the amount of energy consumed by the rink’s heater and ice plant. It controls the overall temperature of the system and increases its chilling capacity.
Temperature adjustments for an ice rink chiller
Does Water Quality Affect your Ice Rink Chiller Capacity?
Water quality has an important role in providing quality to a chilling system. The contaminated water increases the risks of corrosion for an Ice Rink Chiller.
Impure water also takes much longer to freeze.
Impure water has a disturbed pH that can create risks of bacterial and fungal growth in the components of an Ice Rink Chiller.
To avoid all these issues, it is mandatory to use water of outstanding quality.
It is very important to purify the water to reduce the load on the chilling system. Improve the water quality by using extra filters that filter out dust particles out of the circulating water.
What are the Customized Options for an Ice Rink Chiller?
An Ice Rink Chiller can be customized as per the requirements and budget of the operator.
These are designed to provide cooling at freezing temperature to avoid the melting of ice slabs in skating surfaces. The customized options include:
- An indirect refrigeration system is now considered more efficient because of the use of primary and secondary refrigerants that makes it economical and divide the load.
- CO2 can be used as a refrigerant that is cheaper and abundantly available as an industrial by-product and in the environment.
- Energy-efficient inverters are recent advances that can be installed in all the components of an Ice Rink Chiller that require constant electricity such as compressors, condensers, and pumps.
- Instruments to regulate power efficiency, reduce cost expenses, and provide safety and protection to the Ice Rink Chiller are another option that can be adopted as per requirements.
- Eco-friendly green technology is a customized choice available which includes noise-free processors, energy inverters, and solar panels to enhance system efficiency.
C02 for ice rink chiller
What are the Tips for Users of an Ice Rink Chiller?
There are some tips that users and operators can adopt to extend the lifespan and services of an Ice Rink Chiller.
Have a look at the tips that can be beneficial:
- Inspect all the components of an Ice Rink Chiller to have an estimate of leakage. Any possible leak spot must be repaired in time to prevent early replacements.
- Check the protocol and manual guidelines to have an idea about the oil and greasy parts.
- Tight all the valves, screws, and fittings which can result in overheating of the components and cause premature failure.
- Perform an oil and refrigerant analysis to identify the issues due to viscosity, quality, and level of refrigerants.
- Keep the condenser coils and heat exchangers clean. It has a huge impact on the efficiency of the chilling system.
Ice rink chiller maintenances and cleaning
How Often an Ice Rink Chiller should be Serviced?
The compressors of the Ice Rink Chiller operate continuously with no pause.
It is necessary to do the operations that help in the maintenance of the chilling system and its components.
Normally, it is recommended to service the Ice Rink Chiller after usage of about 6000 hours along with inspection of leaks, blockage, and damaged valves, pipes, and fittings to avoid any further loss.
Maintenance of an Ice Rink Chiller is an important step that includes its inspection, repairmen, monitoring, and cleaning of the components every month.
Servicing is not considered a major part of weekly maintenance.
How you can Avoid Corrosion in an Ice Rink Chiller?
Corrosion is a major issue in all the chilling systems, including the Ice Rink Chiller.
It can be avoided by choosing the right refrigerant, reducing the moisture level, and introducing other strategies.
CO2 is non-corrosive. If the chilling system has rust patches because of any factor, try to change the refrigerant and use CO2 to avoid corrosion in the future.
It is non-explosive, so it lowers the danger levels.
Moisture accumulation increases the chances of bacterial and fungal growth in the pipes and fittings.
Microbes disturb the normal pH and result in notorious issues such as corrosion. To avoid corrosion, check that there is no moisture in the Ice Rink Chiller.
What are the Best Maintenance Practices for your Ice Rink Chiller?
Several practices must be performed to increase the efficiency and reliability of an Ice Rink Chiller.
The tasks that are best accomplished for maintenance include:
- Condenser coils should be inspected and kept clean for scale build-up.
- The quality, level, and flow rate of refrigerants must be monitored during a refrigeration cycle.
- The compressor oil must be analyzed and should be filtered out properly.
- All the valves and screws must be tightened to avoid the loss of cooling in the chilling system.
- The fittings and moving parts should be greased and oiled as required by the protocol and guideline manual.
- Refrigerant levels and flow rates must be monitored and regulated if any fluctuations occur.
Ice rink chiller leak inspection
Which Environment is Best for your Ice Rink Chiller?
The Ice Rink Chiller performs like the refrigerators and air conditioners.
As they are suggested to place in an open and ventilated environment, the Ice Rink Chiller is designed to keep outdoors.
It is better to keep the Ice Rink Chiller in an open environment.
Cover the chiller fans in summer to prevent the debris from getting into fan filters and jamming the motor.
Ice Rink Chiller can be customized by minor modifications for an indoor setting.
The manufacturing company can aid in building the chilling system that operates well indoors.
What are the Benefits of Using CO2 in Ice Rink Chiller?
Carbon dioxide is another important refrigerant that is used in chilling systems including an Ice Rink Chiller.
CO2 has many favorable properties that make it a remarkable refrigerant to be used in cooling systems. These properties include:
- Low viscosity
- Environment friendly
- Abundantly present in the atmosphere
- High heat recovery potential
- In-sensitive to pressure losses
Because of these properties, CO2 is considered a beneficial product in Ice Rink Chiller.
CO2 delivers virtuoso performance being a good heat transfer coefficient and requires low pumping power.
Using CO2 is beneficial as it is used as a secondary refrigerant. It is non-corrosive and saves the components from corrosion.
It is a by-product of industries and presents in abundance in the environment so it is cheaper to use.
Another major benefit of using C02 is that it can cover heat recovery.
Because of its high heat recovery potential, it is used in commercial multipack refrigeration and chiller systems.
Why Ice Rink Chiller Use Carbon Dioxide for Climate Control?
Carbon dioxide is used as a refrigerant in the Ice Rink Chiller.
It is non-corrosive, non-toxic, and non-explosive that is abundantly present in the atmosphere freely, and can be used easily.
Using carbon dioxide-based refrigerant boosts the energy of the chilling system.
It is beneficial for climate control as it minimizes the emission level of other greenhouse gases.
Being non-toxic and inflammable, it is considered an eco-friendly refrigerant, that saves the environment from serious health risks and pollution factors that occur because of using toxic gases.
What is the Noise Level of an Ice Rink Chiller?
As Ice Rink Chiller is designed according to the designs of refrigerators and air conditioner units, the sound threshold level is almost the same for them.
They are designed specifically to keep this factor in mind.
For recreational ice rinks and residential purposes, noise sensors are installed to reduce the sound to an extent that it does not cause disturbance for others.
Using ice sensor technology also monitors the ice slab temperature and gives breaks to the chiller.
What is the Life Expectancy of an Ice Rink Chiller?
The life expectancy of an Ice Rink Chiller depends upon the maintenance and regulation of components of the cooling system.
If the components are checked and repaired in time, it can increase the service for a few years.
Normally, the life expectancy of an Ice Rink Chiller is estimated to be approximately 20 years provided the components stay corrosion-free and the pH of brine water is regulated.
Durable ice rink chiller manufactured by TopChiller